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research paper on health

The health condition of a nation affects its economy, so it’s no wonder that this issue is constantly in the focus of attention of both students and professors. A list of health economics research paper topics should help you start your study off. Worthy Research Paper Topics Related to Health Economics. Estimate the health care costs of obesity. Dec 05,  · Health Informatics Research Paper Topics. Health informatics involves the use of computer technology to make health care information more reliable by providing better ways to collect and track data. Here are a few suggestions: The improvements in gathering health data due to informatics; Define health informatics. Research within librarian-selected research topics on Health and Medicine from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.

Health Insurance Research Paper - EssayEmpire

This sample Health Insurance Research paper on health Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples.

Internationally, health insurance serves to improve service utilization and protect households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures. Analysis of how health insurance schemes function in a particular country, especially in relation to other funding aspects and health outcomes, can provide a glimpse of the performance of the whole healthcare system. Internationally, health insurance serves to improve service utilization and protect households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures Spaan et al.

The WHO considers health insurance a promising means for achieving universal health coverage. The history of health insurance has evolved internationally. As medical technologies become increasingly advanced, acute and critical care can now treat many catastrophic, complex, chronic, and serious conditions and injuries that used to be fatal or disabling.

These insurance plans, whether public or private, have different components and payment requirements depending on the nature of the insurance plan and the services being covered. Some insurance plans require members to pay premium costs for enrolling in the program and have various levels of out-of-pocket payments such as deductibles, co-payments, or coinsurance.

They may also require prior authorization from insurance companies to activate coverage for certain procedures or may impose coverage limits for enrollees. Some insurance companies may also utilize payment capitation for healthcare providers to control costs by motivating providers to provide only needed services and in the lowest cost setting, research paper on health.

In general, there are three salient categories of health insurance. Nonetheless, variations abound for each category, and some countries with diverse populations across vast geographical areas e. In the early twentieth century, the Beveridge National. Health Service model in the United Kingdom relied on general taxes, one national risk pool, and publicly provided services Lagomarsino et al, research paper on health.

These two general models continue today and have been adapted for many systems that strive to provide healthcare coverage for their people. As various versions of these models evolve into more mature SHI systems, enrollees and in some cases their employers are mandated by national legislation to pay contributions, either through taxation e.

For example, in Singapore, residents and citizens with employment are required to contribute to the, research paper on health. Provident Fund. These various schemes across the globe would cover a package of services available to the insurees and their dependents. It mandates urban employers and employees of state-owned or private enterprises to contribute to the insurance program administered at municipal level Barber and Yao The newest scheme in the country, the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance UR-BMIwhich was piloted in and rolled out nationwide subsequently, is a voluntary scheme that enrolls children, students, elderly, disabled, and other non-working urban residents, research paper on health.

Despite similar basic ideas, research paper on health, there is considerable variation in how SHI systems have developed across research paper on health. Contributions are held either in a single fund e. These funds may be administered by the public sector e.

Multiple ways of paying providers can be observed even within one country, from unrestricted fee for service e. For example, Germany includes optometry and dental care as part of their schemes, whereas provincial plans in Canada exclude these services but may cover fertility treatments e. In the developed world, the United States is one such example.

Medicaid — a joint states and federal social insurance program — is a means-tested program that pays for basic medical services and drug coverage for Americans with the least income and resources. Until recently, those who were not eligible for these two insurance programs but also could not afford private insurance made up a large proportion of the almost 50 million Americans without coverage. Many of these patients delay care due to the unaffordability of various healthcare services, and there are concerns that such delays can contribute to patients ending up with more costly procedures if their conditions worsen.

In an effort to promote health insurance coverage in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act now only known as the Affordable Care Actwhich was signed into law incontains an individual insurance mandate that took effect in The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Penalties can be levied on those who do not have any form of insurance. Depending on their risk perception, availability and comprehensiveness of public health coverage, research paper on health, quality and accessibility of public healthcare, and the relative and respective affordability of insurance premiums and healthcare procedures, some people may purchase additional PHI to substitute what would otherwise be covered by the NHI Costa and Garcia Private insurance in healthcare systems that provide universal access to medically necessary services may offer choice among private hospitals, inhospital specialists, and shorter wait time for procedures, as in the case of Australia and the United Kingdom Boyle ; Costa and Garcia In other countries, private insurance plans can provide supplementary coverage such as income replacement in case of missed work due to sickness e.

While some Canadian provinces prohibited private health insurance for covered services to prevent unequal access, and that private clinics cannot charge above the agreed-upon provincial fee schedule or for publicly insured services, research paper on health, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in Chaoulli v Quebec AG in that prohibiting private medical insurance in the face of long wait times violated the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms and Section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

In the United States, many people with private insurance are covered under an employer-based plan, although individual health insurance research paper on health can also be obtained through some research paper on health. Given that the aforementioned Affordable Care Act mandates purchase of insurance plans, enrollment in insurance plans is not discretionary.

Nonetheless, these plans are mostly offered on the private market, and unlike other countries with compulsory contributions e. Preexisting conditions are often excluded from at least temporary coverage e. In the United States, where people are now required to purchase health insurance, companies are prohibited from canceling or rescinding coverage except in cases of fraud, or from excluding coverage or charging higher premiums for preexisting conditions.

Before the Affordable Care Act came into effect inpeople with various prior conditions or disabilities could obtain coverage through the Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan. CBHI is usually based on voluntary membership, whereby members are linked to a healthcare provider often a hospital in the area. Funds are thereby accumulated and managed to spread the risk of payment for healthcare among all scheme members. In the s, many rural residents in China lost insurance coverage due to dissolution of rural cooperatives, research paper on health.

In addition to individual contributions, the central and local governments also subsidize the program. While Ghana and Rwanda have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programs, poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked in other places with low uptake e. While international organizations such as the WHO have been keenly advocating for universal health coverage, the path to achieving such goal is not without ethical and political controversy as well as conceptual confusions, research paper on health.

Even in systems where the government owns some of the hospitals, as in the United Kingdom, physicians are private practitioners. In England, for example, there has been an increasing emphasis on developing patient choice, provider competition, and the use of private providers to deliver publicly funded healthcare Bevan et al. Another conceptual issue that is ethically important is how a system determines what services ought to be covered in an insurance scheme. In Canada, when a healthcare service to be provided to a patient is deemed medically necessary, it is fully funded by the provincial insurance plan, research paper on health.

Otherwise, patients must pay for it directly. The basic idea is to have needs, not wants, determine what the insurance system would cover. In lower-income countries, many of which have different research paper on health patterns, economic realities, cultural practices, and technological capacities from the higher-income systems, coverage priorities differ accordingly.

A commitment to fairness and the overlapping concern for equity have been deemed important in research paper on health countries in making these decisions. As technologies continue to advance and the global population continues to age, research paper on health, there will be increasing pressure on various countries in reconsidering how to prioritize their resources in maintaining and improving population health, research paper on health.

There research paper on health be also questions regarding whether the gap in international access to healthcare services is widening. The last point regarding inequality and health access brings out the central ethical dimension of health insurance — whether unequal and inadequate access to health insurance or essential healthcare is a problem of justice. In international discussion of health insurance, calls to ensure just allocation of healthcare resources are sometimes expressed in terms of rights.

Article Other international organizations such as the WHO research paper on health recognize the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health as a fundamental right of every human being. There have been many debates regarding whether there is truly a right to health or to healthcare, given that rights claims are accompanied by duties and obligations from others.

Libertarians, who emphasize noninterference research paper on health the states, would agree that people have research paper on health negative right to obtain health insurance on their own without state restrictions.

If research paper on health in a society so desire, they can organize themselves so that everyone in the society can acquire the means to provide their healthcare needs.

Nonetheless, libertarians deny that people have a positive right to have these needs met by others if they could not afford to purchase insurance coverage on their own. The libertarian argument, which is an important political theory that elucidates the legitimate purposes and boundaries of the state, is sometimes juxtaposed with other theories of justice.

John Rawls, one of the most prominent liberal egalitarians in the twentieth century, argued that people should not be disadvantaged because of various morally arbitrary factors, such as their ethnic background, geographical location, health status, etc. He argued that the concept of justice as fairness implies that all people should have access to equal opportunity ranges in their society regardless of whether they were born rich or poor.

Applying these ideas to access to health insurance, Norman Daniels and others Saloner and Daniels have argued that liberal societies have an obligation to provide at least a decent minimum level of healthcare access e. Healthcare can often maintain or restore normal species functioning and the array of life plans that people construct for themselves and should be research paper on health guaranteed according to the liberal egalitarian account. Higher-income earners, such as those in Germany, can be exempt from supporting the public sickness fund by opting out and purchasing insurance from private insurers.

Moreover, studies in the United Kingdom have shown that health inequalities by class have not been reduced by the presence of universal coverage Daniels However, research paper on health, cost is only one of the factors in promoting reliable access to essential services. Research paper on health many countries, particularly those of lower income, strive to provide universal coverage, there research paper on health other calls to also attend to other infrastructure matters that can help to promote the quality of services that are to be covered and delivered.

Health insurance will need to be complemented with supply-side investments to ensure better distribution of facilities, healthcare personnel, functional medical equipment, and computer systems.

There will also need to be careful monitoring of various delivery systems to ensure accountability and high performance, research paper on health. Without investments in quality, countries run the risk of wasteful increases in access to unnecessary or poor-quality services Lagomarsino et al. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions, research paper on health.

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research paper on health


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